and new dating site - Civilizations predating
During the Middle Ages, Islam spread west from Arabia to Egypt, crossing the Maghreb and the Sahel.
Some notable pre-colonial states and societies in Africa include the Ajuran Empire, D'mt, Adal Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, Kingdom of Nri, Nok culture, Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, Benin Empire, Ashanti Empire, Ghana Empire, Mossi Kingdoms, Mutapa Empire, Kingdom of Mapungubwe, Kingdom of Sine, Kingdom of Sennar, Kingdom of Saloum, Kingdom of Baol, Kingdom of Cayor, Kingdom of Zimbabwe, Kingdom of Kongo, Empire of Kaabu, Ancient Carthage, Numidia, Mauretania, and the Aksumite Empire.
A republic is quite different from a democracy, in which every citizen is expected to play an active role in governing the state.
The Roman concept of the citizen evolved during the Roman Republic and changed significantly during the later Roman Empire.
The Arabs are not a distinct ethnic group, since there are both white Arabs and black arabs.
Some of the Nor is language a sufficient criterion of Arabness since there are many Arabic-speaking jews who are not normally called Arabs.
During the Empire, each emperor wore a purple toga to distinguish himself as the princeps, or "first citizen."Citizenship varied greatly.